Bone cement have been used widely in supporting artificial joints for more than half a century. Bone cement provides elasticity by filling the space between prosthesis and the bone. The necessity of bone cement is supported by the fact that the human hip is acted on 10-12 times by the body weight and therefore the forces acting on hips should be absorbed by the bone cement to ensure safety of artificial implants. An orthopedic cast is a shell made from plaster, encasing a limb to hold a broken bone in place until total recovery is made. It immobilizes the fractured bone in order to support bone alignment and promote healing. Bone cements are utilized to reinforce stability in bones during an internal fixation surgery. Bone casting and biomaterials are used in various orthopedic applications such as wrist joint replacement, tibia alignment, anchoring of femoral head prosthesis and hip replacement or fixation surgery.
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Almost half of the worlds energy demand over the past decades was fulfilled by coal. In fact coal has been the world’s fastest energy source driven by Asian demand and regional abundance of fuel. Coal washery is an establishment where coal is alienated from slate and different impurities through various mechanical processes which utilize water and take gain of the difference in the specific gravity and its impurities of coal. The more impurities or waste material is removed from the coal the greater is the market value and lower ash content. Earlier coking coal was only washed as it was used in steel manufacturing with an ash content of 17-18 % but new environment regulations has put restriction on high ash content coal in power and other industries which necessitates the priority of washing non coking coal also.
The segmentation of the market can be done on the basis of Wet and Dry processes. In the initial stage crushing is done to reduce the size of extracted coal and making it suitable for washing. Size reduction technique involves various processes such as intact, shearing, compression, splitting and attrition. After crushing screening process is done for the separation of heterogeneous particle. Different types of screens are used such as scalping screen, raw coal sizing screen, pre-wet screen, heavy media recovery screen, desliming screen and dewatering screen. Next process for cleaning of coal is through Jigs.
The method is operated on the basis of difference in specific gravity. Jigs offer cost effective technology with clean coal yield of 70-85%. Froth Floatation is the most widely used technique for cleaning coal. It utilizes the difference in the surface characteristics of coal and reuses it to clean ultra fine coal. The mixture of coal and water is conditioned with chemical reagents so that air bubbles will stick on the coal and floats on the top, while the reused particles sink. This cleaning technique is generally expensive and complex and is majorly for metallurgical coal. In launder process raw coal is fed into the high end of a trough with a stream of water. As the mixture of water and coal flows down, particles with the maximum settling speed settle down into the lower strata of the stream. The dirt free coal particles settle into the upper strata before separation.
Some of the key players in the coal washery market are Phil Group Coal Washeries, Larsen and Tubro Limited, China Metallurgical Engineering & Project Corporation, CLI Corporation and Adhunik Group among others.
This research report analyzes this market depending on its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends. Geographies analyzed under this research report include
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Rest of the World
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